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Wednesday, 14 October 2020

The Lidice children

Among the ramblings of WWII, those committed on children are, in my opinion, the worst. Of course the Germans are the main culprits of what happened, since they not only committed them but also induced their partners, the Baltic countries, the Austrians, the Romanians, the Hungarians, etc. to carry out all kinds of atrocities. One of the German specialties was to murder entire towns, men, women and children, in Belarus and throughout the USSR thousands of towns were the victims, but as is often the case, even today, the further east the atrocities occur, the more unknown they are. The Lidice massacre was the complete destruction of the village of Lidice, in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, now the Czech Republic, in June 1942 on orders from Adolf Hitler and Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. In reprisal for the assassination of Reich Protector Reinhard Heydrich 
Reinhard Heydrich

In the late spring of 1942,all 173 males from the village who were over 15 years of age were executed on 10 June 1942. A further 11 men from the village but who were not present at the time, were later arrested and executed soon afterwards, along with several others who were already under arrest. The 184 women and 88 children were deported to concentration camps; a few children who were considered racially suitable and thus eligible for Germanisation were handed over to SS families and the rest were sent to the Chełmno extermination camp where they were gassed.


But it is not our intention to describe the horror suffered by the unhappy inhabitants of that village, for this you can see the links at the bottom of this article, but rather to follow the fate of the rare children abducted and who survived that barbarism.

Three days after the attack, Nazi officials separated the young from their mothers, assuring all that a reunion would follow relocation. The women boarded trucks bound for Ravensbrück concentration camp, and most of the children left for a camp in Łódź, Poland.

The young survivors arrived in Łódź with a message from their Nazi captors: “The children are taking with them only what they wear. No special care is to be provided.” Indeed, the only “care” given at the camp was extensive physical testing. German doctors measured the children’s facial features, identifying those with “Aryan” characteristics as candidates for Germanization  a process where suitably featured non-German children were adopted by German families.


In total, nine children met the criteria for Germanization and were sent to Puschkau, Poland, to learn German and begin the assimilation process. On July 2, the remaining 81 children arrived at Chelmno   extermination camp. Historians believe they were killed in mobile gas chambers that same day. 

By the end of the war, 340 of Lidice’s 503 residents were dead as a direct result of the June 10 massacre. 143 women and 17 children, including those born just after the attack, eventually returned to the ruins of their hometown and began the arduous task of resurrecting the community.

(https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/story-lidice-massacre-180970242/ )

Only 17 children come back, many only speaking German because they were adopted by German families ( nazis of course ).

Lidice School
Some histories of the survivors :

Anna Hanfová, one of three siblings selected for Germanization, was one of the first lost children to return. She spent the remainder of the war living in eastern Germany but maintained limited contact with her sister Marie and cousin Emilie Frejová, and when Anna returned to Lidice, she led authorities to both relatives’ new German homes.

Otto and Freda Kuckuk, a well-to-do couple with strong SS ties, had adopted Frejová. In Witnesses to War , author Michael Leapman writes that Frejová adjusted well, but Marie’s new life was more complicated: Her adoptive family treated her like a slave and convinced her that the Czech were a subservient race. It took several years for Marie to overcome this indoctrinated belief.

Václav, the third sibling, refused to cooperate with his captors; he drifted between children’s homes and incurred brutal punishments for unruly behavior. In late 1945, Josefina Napravilova, a humanitarian who located about 40 lost Czech children during the aftermath of the war, encountered Vaclav at a displaced persons camp. He was slow to trust her but later dubbed Napravilova his “second mother.”

Elizabeth White, a historian at theUnoited States Holocaust Memorial Museum,  , explains the difficulty of the children’s rehabilitation process, as most selected for Germanization were taken from home at a young age and eventually forgot their Czech heritage.

“When [the children] were found and sent back, they didn't remember how to speak Czech,” White says. “One girl’s mother survived Ravensbrück but had tuberculosis and died four months after she came back. At first when they spoke, they had to use a translator.”

(https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/story-lidice-massacre-180970242/)

 





Friday, 9 October 2020

The Germans collaborated in the Armenian genocide

 My theory is that the people have a collective soul that is inherited through generations, instilled by mothers, grandmothers and relatives who make a people more hard-working, more studious or more cruel than others.

 The theory that the Nazis led by Hitler were paratroopers who fell on a peaceful and music-loving people are mere hoaxes. Given the collective amnesia suffered by the Germans who perpetrated the genocities they committed on what happened, barely softened by some official statements and with a silence that reaches new generations, it is necessary to examine the past to see the origin of the cruelty of the German people, including Austria of course.

 In the future we will talk about the behavior of the Germans in their colonies or even their behavior in America when some went with the Spanish soldiers as they had the same emperor. Now we will talk about a little known aspect, his collaboration with the Turks in the Armenian genocide.

 In his article "Today’s Turkey continues the Armenian genocide" 

https://www.voltairenet.org/article187587.html,

Thierry Meissan said : 

The declarations of President Gauck

By recognising German « co-responsibility, and even, potentially, complicity » in the 1915 massacres, German President Joachim Gauck lifted the taboo concerning the continuance of the crime, and he did so with even more courage considering the strong Turkish presence in Germany and the absence of an Armenian electorate.



An exemplary officer, Rudolf Höß acquired skill in matters of genocide in Turkey, during the 2nd Reich. He then became the director of the Auschwitz camp during the 3rd Reich.

Historians established the role of the German delegation in the genocide a long time ago. The orders of deportation signed by the Ottoman Vice-Chief of Staff, German general Fritz Bronsart von Schellendorf, have been published. The German Empire of William II had already tested genocide by exterminating the Hereros and the Namas in South-West Africa (now Namibia) in 1905. The German officers who observed and sometimes participated in the genocide of non-Muslims in Turkey put their skills to use during the Nazi régime. For example, this was the case for Rudolf Höß - his father participated in the genocide of the Hereros in 1905, as he did himself with the Armenians in 1916. He then became the commandant of the camp of Auschwitz from 1940 to 1943, where he massacred Jews, gypsies and Slavs.

In order to understand and prevent genocides, we must not study them from the point of view of the victims, but by correctly understanding the point of view of the executioners.

Until now, we have belived, wrongly, that the Young Turks and the Nazis were the only ones responsibles for the Armenian and Jewish genocides. But History shows us that the ideologies which led to these crimes were shared by others, before and after them, who also attempted to perpetrate them. Contrary to what we might imagine, there is no example of a genocide which was accomplished in a single operation, nor against a single population. These crimes continue for a very long time, and always concern several ethnic groups. It is therefore essential to condemn the first massacres, and to condemn the underlying ideologies in order to prevent the continuance of genocides. 

Rudolf Höss hanged

Friedrich (Fritz) Bronsart von Schellendorf He was the chief of Staff of the Ottoman Army, part of German military mission in the Ottoman Empire. . He was instrumental drafting initial war plans for the Ottoman Army. He is "depicted as the actual initiator of the scheme of the Armenian Genocide". He was an ardent supporter of Hitler during 1930s also.

Role during the Armenian Genocide (*)

Friedrich (Fritz) Bronsart von Schellendorf
Friedrich (Fritz) Bronsart von Schellendorf

Because of the question of his involvement in the genocide of Armenians, Bronsart von Schellendorf attracted increased attention in recent historiography . In his controversial study of the role of German officers in the Armenian genocide, Vahakn Dadrian identified Bronsart von Schellendorf’s direct complicity, even seeing him as an instigator. Recent research has questioned this accusation. Bronsart von Schellendorf was willing to accept the Turkish measures of violence against the Armenians   and took the anti-Armenian view of the Young Turks . But, as Isabel Hull has pointed out, he was primarily guided by “military necessity”. Under this premise, he agreed to the deportation of Armenians from the border areas to Russia, focusing solely on his military responsibilities. Behind the phrase “military necessity” was the strong mistrust of the Armenian population in the hinterland of the front. Fearing a possible


Armenian uprising, German officers like Bronsart von Schellendorf, and Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz (1843-1916), s
upported a deportation of the Armenian population. At the same time, Bronsart von Schellendorf did not intend to destroy the Armenians. Nevertheless, by supporting the deportation plan he accepted the risk of  Armenians being killed in the deportation. Thus, he was involved in the genocide planned and undertaken by the Young Turks. But even when the genocidal intention of the Turks became unmistakable, Bronsart von Schellendorf was not willing to distance himself from their actions or even to intervene, as other German officers such as Colmar von der Goltz or Otto Liman von Sanders did. Moreover, after the First World War, he repeatedly defended the Young Turk leadership in newspaper articles. In an article in the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of July 24, 1921, on the occasion of the trial of the Talat Pasha (1874-1921) murderer, he attempted to justify the Turks and himself by explaining that the death of the Armenians was only the effect of the inability of the Turks to carry out an orderly deportation. In doing so, he not only drew on widespread images of well-organised Germans and disorganised Orientals, but also denied the Young Turks’ intention of destroying the Armenians. Thus, together with a number of other former German officers (including Hans Humann (1878-1933), he contributed towards the denial of the murder of the Armenians. The motive for this behavior was partly due to a continued loyalty to the Turks and partly to a fundamentally defensive attitude against all allegations of the Entente regarding German involvement. In the case of Bronsart von Schellendorf, there was direct personal involvement as Ottoman chief of staff.


(*) https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/bronsart_von_schellendorf_friedrich


Friday, 17 July 2020

Violations of Russian women by the Germans (II)

If you search Interner for rapes of women in the Second World War, almost all of the pages are devoted to rapes of German women by the Allies and some pages to Korean comfort women, raped by the Japanese. It is practically impossible to find pages dedicated to the violations committed by the Germans in Russia and other occupied countries and you have to search, with difficulty, in other pages dedicated to German atrocities.

German women with Russian soldiers in Berlin
Here we have some very interesting examples of the behavior of the "gentlemen" Germans.

On January 6, 1942, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR Vyacheslav Molotov sent to the ambassadors of all countries with which Moscow maintained diplomatic relations a note on the atrocities of the German authorities in the occupied Soviet territories. This document lists numerous incidents of occupational violence against Soviet women and girls. Here are a few quotes.

“The village of Basmanovo of the Glinkovsky district of the Smolensk region, liberated by our troops in early September, was a solid ashes after the Germans took over. On the very first day, the Nazi monsters drove out more than 200 schoolchildren and schoolgirls who came to the village to harvest, surrounded them and brutally shot them. Big they took a group of schoolgirls to their rear “for the gentlemen officers” ... In the city of Smolensk, the German command opened a brothel for officers in one of the hotels, in which hundreds of girls and women were driven in, dragged by the arms, by the hair, ruthlessly dragged along the bridge Everywhere, the brutalized German bandits burst into homes, rape women and girls in front of their relatives and their children, mock raped women and brutally crack down on their victims.

In the city of Lvov 32 workers of the Lvov sewing factory were raped and then killed by German attack aircraft. Drunken German soldiers dragged Lvov girls and young women to Kosciuszko Park and brutally raped them ... In the city of Tikhvin, Leningrad Region, 15-year-old Kolodetskaya, being wounded by a fragment, was brought to the hospital, where the wounded German soldiers were. Despite the injury, Kolodetskaya was raped by a group of German soldiers, which caused her death. "*
More German women with Russian soldiers

How the Germans dealt with captured Russian women

Residents of Smagleyevka (Voronezh region), after their liberation in 1943, said that at the beginning of the war, a young Red Army girl died in a terrible death. She was seriously injured. Despite this, the Nazis stripped her naked, dragged to the road and shot.

The unfortunate traces of torture remained on the unfortunate body. Before her death, her breasts were cut off, her whole face and hands were completely shredded. The woman's body was a continuous bloody mess. Similarly, they acted with Zoya Kosmodemyanskoy. Before the indicative execution, the Nazis spent hours half-naked in the cold. 

In addition to these atrocities, female Red Army soldiers were constantly raped. The highest military ranks of the Wehrmacht were forbidden to enter into intimate relations with the Slavs, so they did it secretly. The rank and file here had a certain freedom. Finding one female Red Army man or nurse, she could be raped by a whole company of soldiers. If the girl after that did not die, she was shot.
Hanging Russian civilians

The following are a few examples of the treatment of "civilized" Germans with captive women soldiers.

In August 1941, on the orders of Emil Knol, commander of the field gendarmerie of the 44th Infantry Division, a prisoner of war was shot - a military doctor.

In the city of Mglinsk in the Bryansk region in 1941, the Germans captured two girls from the sanitary unit and shot them.
A prisoner of war girl shot by invaders. The Red Army uniform is clearly visible.


After the defeat of the Red Army in the Crimea in May 1942, an unknown girl in military uniform was hiding in the house of a resident of Buryachenko in the Mayak fishing village of Mayak near Kerch. On May 28, 1942, the Germans discovered her during a search. The girl resisted the Nazis, shouting: “Shoot, you bastards!” I am dying for the Soviet people, for Stalin, and you, monsters, will come dog death! ” The girl was shot in the yard.

At the end of August 1942, a group of sailors was shot in the village of the Crimean Krasnodar Territory, among them there were several girls in uniform.

In the village of Starotitarovskaya of the Krasnodar Territory, among the shot prisoners of war, a corpse of a girl in a red army uniform was found. She had a passport in the name of Tatyana Alexandrovna Mikhailova, 1923, a native of the village of Novo-Romanovka.

In the village of Vorontsovo-Dashkovskoye of the Krasnodar Territory in September 1942, the captured military assistant parasite Glubokova and Yachmenev were brutally tortured.

On January 5, 1943, not far from Severny Farm, 8 Red Army soldiers were captured. Among them is a nurse named Luba. After prolonged torture and bullying, all prisoners were shot.
A peasant examines the bodies of murdered girls prisoners of war. Probably wants to bury them.
On the right, judging by the bandage on his sleeve - a policeman.


Division intelligence translator P. Rafes recalls that in the village of Smagleyevka, liberated in 1943, 10 km from Kantemirovka, residents told how, in 1941, “a wounded lieutenant girl was pulled naked on the road, her face, hands, and breasts were cut ...”

Often captured women were exposed to violence before death. A soldier from the 11th Panzer Division, Hans Rudhoff, testifies that in the winter of 1942 “... Russian nurse-men lay on the roads. They were shot and thrown onto the road. They lay naked ... On these dead bodies ... obscene inscriptions were written. "

Wednesday, 3 June 2020

Rapes of Russian women by the Germans


  In the terrible history of the Second World War, there are many totally forgotten events.
The rapes of German women by Allied forces, Russians, Americans, French, etc., have been widely publicized and aired, especially by the Germans, but like all stories they must be told from their beginning and the beginning is not the invasion of Germany. by the allies but the action of the Germans in the countries occupied with the civilian population.
n World War I, the German army's losses from sexually transmitted diseases amounted to approximately 2 million people. The losses of the German army in World War II from sexually transmitted diseases were significantly lower, the exact figure is 706 thousand people. These are the ones who had gonorrhea and syphilis, and those who couldn't fight for some time.

In total, during the war, according to historians, according to documents, the German army organized 569 brothels, in which at least 50 thousand women worked. Some conservatives say that there were, in fact, 35,000. We will not establish the exact figure, but I think the 50 thousand figure is closer to the truth.


These estimates do not take into account the violations committed "in situ" when occupying cities and towns, which were undoubtedly higher.
How were women recruited there? Differently. In different sources, in general, there is different information. In Kharkov, say, it was reported that they simply pulled relatively pretty girls out of the tail of the job exchange and were forcibly taken to a specific service. Another option was an alternative, to go to Germany for forced labor or to go to a brothel.
I must say that many of the German soldiers did not like going to these establishments too much, because they underwent a strict medical control; There, I will not tell all kinds of details about the injections and other charms that precede and enclose the pleasure received and the lines. that was there in the streets and so on. Very often, German soldiers solved their sexual problems in a different way.

The violations of the Germans were publicly known and this poster warns of them and asks the sailor in the picture for help and revenge.


Initially, exclusively due to violence. As early as January 1942, the Molotov note on Nazi crimes of January 7, 1942 was presented to the world community. Among other things, this note spoke of rape, often accompanied by murder and all kinds of atrocities against women. This practice continued, in fact, throughout the war. And about some of the wildest cases, we know, oddly enough, from German judicial investigation materials. Because it is very rare, but nevertheless, rapists were tried.
the court was never intended to protect a woman. . Furthermore, it was written there so that "since Russian women have lost the concept of feminine honor, there can be no doubt that a German court does not protect them."*
*Oleg Budnitsky.Doctor of Historical Sciences,
The number of rapes in the Soviet Union was much higher than in western Europe. There was a special attitude towards the civilian population: that this is a second-class population, these are completely different people. And the war in the East was completely different from the war in the West. In fact, German soldiers were granted the right to kill the civilian population.

The Russian army had a large number of women in ranks, note the treatment the Germans gave to female prisoner soldiers.



Attrocities

Occasionally, from deployment locations for parts of the Wehrmacht, "hunting expeditions" would depart for the surrounding settlements. "We went to the village of Rozhdestveno near Gatchina," said Private Peter Schuber, who was serving at Seversky Airfield. officers, in the morning they gave the girls to our soldiers. "
In Smolensk, the German command opened an officers' brothel in one of the hotels, to which hundreds of girls and women led; they were dragged by the hands, by the hair, ruthlessly dragged along the pavement. In the village of Semenovskoye, Kalinin region, the Germans raped 25-year-old Olga Tikhonova, wife of the Red Army, mother of three children, who was in the last stage of pregnancy.


Hungarian soldiers, allies of the Germans, with Russian women killed after raping them

In Belarus, near the city of Borisov, 75 women and girls who fled as German troops approached fell into the hands of the Nazis. The invaders raped and then brutally murdered 36 women and girls.
After the Red Army forces expelled the Nazis from Kerch, the Red Army had a terrible vision: "In the prison yard a lot of mutilated naked bodies of naked girls were found, savagely and cynically tormented by the Nazis" . In the city of Tikhvin, Leningrad region, a high school student M. Kolodetskaya, who was injured by a missing fragment, was taken to a hospital located in a former monastery. As witnesses later showed, "Despite the injury, Kolodetskaya was raped by a group of German soldiers, resulting in her death."
In the town of Borodayevka, Dnipropetrovsk region, the Nazis raped all women and girls without exception.**
This photo of the deceased Russian woman - mother, needs no comment.



**Vladimir Zabarovsky, director of the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War

The Germans knew what they had done and feared retaliation.

From the diary of the German Dieter Borkovsky, 16, from April 15, 1945. The day before the start of the final operation of the Red Army to capture Berlin:

Berlin train The car is full of women and children, refugees, noise, roar, panic. Someone shouted. Everyone saw a simple and dirty German soldier, with iron crosses for participating in a battle with tanks. "" I want to tell you something, "he yelled, and there was silence on the train.

This is what the Germans did. The revenge of the Russians is fair and it seems very soft to me.

"- Even if they don't want to listen! We must win this war, we must not lose courage. If the others win - Russians, Poles, French, Czechs - and at least one percent do to our people what we did to them for six years "They have been working with them for years in a row, in a few weeks not a single German will be alive. This is what someone who has been in the occupied countries for six years tells them! "The train was so quiet that you could hear the fork drop."

Saturday, 23 May 2020

An offensive greater than day D forgotten



 Since the end of WWII, western historiography has led us to believe that the Normandy landing was the decisive element for the victory in Europe. Nothing is further from reality.
The Russians were already near Poland and in Operation Bragation they defeated, and eliminated, the German Army Group Center, causing them more casualties than in Stalingrad.
The Russians would have arrived alone at the Atlantic and some say that the Anglo-Saxon landing was to avoid it, because Churchill had been delated it so that the human waste in front of the Germans would suffer the Russians.
 If you look at the number of Anglo-Saxon soldiers in front of the Russians, you can see the difference in effort, 2.5 million Russian soldiers against 160,000 Allied soldiers in Normandy the day of invasion (about 2 million at the end of August ), and only 50,000 in the South of France.
The initial D-Day landings were made with approximately 175,000 Allied troops against about 80,000 Wehrmacht soldiers.
Operation Bagration, which was launched on June 22, 1944, pitted 2.3,  million Russian troops, supported by 36,400 artillery pieces, 5,200 tanks and 5,300 aircraft, against the Germans’ Army Group Centre, which numbered 700,000 men, 900 tanks and 1,350 aircraft.




















Within a month of launching, Bagration had succeeded. In relentless lightning attacks, Soviet forces annihilated 17 German divisions and reduced another 50 to half-strength, which translated into a net German loss of 42 divisions. Army Group Centre was no more. Moreover, the Soviets had punched a hole 400 kilometres wide and 160 kilometres long in the German front. By September, they would be knocking on German-occupied Warsaw’s door.*

Meanwhile, the western Allies, wedded to Montgomery’s unimaginative tactics, were still mired on the Normandy beachhead. Only on July 26, 1944, did their attempts to break out succeed, under Patton’s — not Montgomery’s — leadership.
Their breakout was aided by the fact that Bagration had forced the Wehrmacht to redeploy 46 divisions, including some from France, to the eastern front. Even then, the western Allies’ failure to close the Falaise pocket in August allowed the retreating Germans to escape. The Soviet juggernaut made no such mistake. Indeed, as Bagration showed, by the time the western Allies got around to launching their second front, which Stalin had been clamouring for since 1941, the Red Army almost didn’t need it.*

The total casualties in Normandy of the allies were . from D-Day to 21 August 225.000 about , in the D Day operation about 10.000.
The Red Army suffered 178.507 killed and missing and 587.308  wounded and non-battle casualties, 765.815 in total *


The casualties of the Germans , against the Russians, only in the Operation Bragation were 445.000 about.

In the West, twenty-five out of 38 German divisions had been utterly destroyed. The rest had been reduced to shattered remnants. In total, the Germans suffered 290,000 casualties in Normandy, including 23,000 dead, 67,000 wounded and around 200,000 missing or captured. 

** Hitler´s Greatest Defeat . Paul Adair 

 By the end of May 1944 the Wehrmacht had 58 divisions in the west, of which only 11 were deployed against the D-Day landings. At the same time, however, the Germans deployed 228 divisions in the east. Thus, the Germans had almost four times as many troops facing the Soviets. And they had less than one-20th of that number in Normandy


In order to show the outside world the magnitude of the victory of Operation Bragation, some 57,000 German prisoners, taken from the encirclement east of Minsk, were paraded through Moscow: even marching quickly and twenty abreast, they took 90 minutes to pass





So, the Operation Bragatios was a lot more important that D Day, and some people said that the D Day Celebration would have to be changed by Operation Bragation´s celebration, but that is a utopia when Russia is not even invited to the events celebrating D-Day.

Thursday, 21 May 2020

Trials of Germans Criminals




"Simple crimes and atrocities do not constitute the most serious point of the charges brought. What is serious is the fact of having consciously participated in a system of tremendous cruelty and injustice with absolute disregard for all moral principles in civilized nations ” American magistrate Dan Haywood, played by a sensational Spencer Tracy, in the movie "Judgment at Nuremberg." 1961.
Foto film Judgment at Nuremberg.


There is a common feeling in the West that the leading German assassins were tried and punished after WWII. Nothing is further from reality. Only a handful of assassins were tried, not even the tip of the iceberg, the German assassins tried represent only the size of a seagull perched on the iceberg.
In the well-known Nuremberg trials in 1945, only 24 high-ranking German assassins were tried and not even all were punished, some were acquitted!
There were other trials :
1963-65 Cologne. Germany. German judges.)  13 tried.... 7 term imprisonment....6 acquitted.
2001 Lodz Poland. Polish judges  ) 1 criminal tried....1 term impprisonment. He was sentenced to 8 years' imprisonment, with consideration given to his advanced age
  • Dachau trials...245 criminal tried...132 executed...103 terms imprisonment...10 acquitted


Dachau/Germany



A public opinion poll conducted after the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials indicated that 57% of the German public were not in favor of additional Nazi trials.

  • Majdanek trials, the longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years...The first one in Lublin ( Poland ) 6 tried...5 executed, 1 suicide. 
      The second one in Lublin an other cities of Poland 1946-1948 . 95 tried ...7 executed...88 terms imprisonment, most very shorts.
      Third Majdanek trial 1975-1981 Düsseldorf , Germany, 16 tried...5 acquitted, 11 shorts terms imprisonment ( German Judges )



  • 1. Frenzel, Karl, carpenter; arrested in 1962. Accused of personally killing 42 Jews and helping to murder approximately 250,000 Jews. Found guilty of personally killing 6 Jews and of helping to murder approximately 150,000 Jews. Sentenced to life in prison.
    2. Bolender, Kurt, hotel porter; arrested in 1961. The former commander of extermination Camp III was accused of personally killing approximately 360 Jews and of helping to murder approximately 86,000 Jews. Committed suicide in prison before sentencing.
    3. Wolf, Franz, warehouse clerk; arrested in 1964. Accused of personally killing one Jew and helping to murder 115,000 Jews. Found guilty of having assisted in the murder of at least 39,000 Jews. Sentenced to eight years in prison.
    4. Ittner, Alfred, laborer. Accused of helping to kill approximately 57,000 Jews. Found guilty of having assisted in the murder of approximately 68,000 Jews. Sentenced to four years in prison.
    5. Dubois, Werner, mechanic. Accused of helping to kill approximately 43,000 Jews. Found guilty of having assisted in the murder of at least 15,000 Jews. Sentenced to three years in prison.
    6. Fuchs, Erich, truck driver. Helped in the construction of the gas chambers at the death camps BelzecSobibor and Treblinka and was convicted for having directed experimental gassings that killed at least 3,000 Soviet prisoners. Also found guilty of assisting in the murder of at least 79,000 Jews. Sentenced to four years in prison. He died in 1984.
    7. Lachman, Erich, mason; accused of helping to kill approximately 150,000 Jews; freed.
    8. Shutt, Hans, salesman; accused of helping to kill approximately 86,000 Jews; freed.
    9. Unverhau, Heinrich, male nurse; accused of helping to kill approximately 72,000 Jews; freed.
    10. Juhrs, Robert, porter and janitor; accused of helping to kill approximately 30 Jews; freed.
    11. Zierke, Ernest, saw mill worker; accused of helping to kill approximately 30 Jews; freed.
    12. Lambert, Erwin, tile layer; accused of helping to kill an unknown number of Jews; freed




  • Gustav Wagner, Deputy Commandant of Sobibor, who had ordered the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Jews as chief of the selections and had been sentenced to death in absentia by the Nuremberg Tribunal. With the help of the Vatican, Wagner and Franz Stangl escaped to Brazil, where Wagner was admitted as a permanent resident on April 12, 1950. Wagner lived openly in Sao Paulo until his arrest in May 1978, but the Brazilian Supreme Court refused to extradite him to Germany. According to his attorney, Gustav Wagner comitted suicide in October 1980.

  • Treblinka trials in Düsseldorf, Germany.( 1951-1988 . Frankfurt & Düsseldorf, Germany , Jerusalem , Israel)  12 tried....0 executed....10 terms imprisonment...2 acquitted.

The first SS man brought to trial for war crimes committed in Treblinka was Josef (Sepp) Hirtreiter in 1951.


He was rearrested and brought to trial in Frankfurt am Main in March 1951, at his trial he was recognised by Sawek Warszawski, who left for dead in a burial pit, survived.Hirtrieier was found guilty of war crimes and was sentenced to life imprisonment on 3 March 1951.
Hirtreiter was released from prison in 1977 due ti illness. He died 6 months later in a home for the lederly in Frankfurt.

Among the crimes of which he was found guilty of were beating two prisoners until they were unconscious, because money had been found on them, then hanging them by their feet and finally killing them with a shot in the head: killing many young children ages one and one –half to two, during the unloading of transports, by seizing them by the feet and smashing their heads against the boxcars.



A very approximate summary of the judgments of the trials gives us this graph.





Importantly, many sentenced to death and all sentenced to life imprisonment had their sentences commuted for a few years in prison and in the early 1950s virtually all were free walking the streets of Germany.


Another graph of sentences when judges were Germans. 0 death sentences.




And still today the news is being heard of an old man who is being tried for his crimes, most of the time they do not even go to trial or are acquitted because of their age. The collaborationism of German justice with the Nazi assassins deserves a separate chapter.