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Sunday, 31 March 2019

Cephalonia Another forgotten German crime



 The murders of the Germans in WWII are so varied and carried out on so many victims that it surprises. At the moment it is fashionable, induced by several German historians, to reflect that the allies also committed crimes in the WWII, to try to exculpate the German crimes.
  Of course the allies committed crimes, from the rapes of women by the African soldiers of the French army to robberies or also rapes by American and Russian soldiers, but trying to compare them with those committed by the Germans is like trying to compare an ant and an elephant.

  From the creation of destined fields to exterminate those who entered, the first time in the history of mankind that something similar has been done, to the meticulous planning of the extermination by fame of the occupied cities, not to mention the vans that gassed to which they went in them, extermination of cities and villages with all their inhabitants, etc, in contrast the Russians fed the Berliners the day after occupying Berlin.
  Currently in a European Union dominated by Germans, all important positions have a German holder or his second is German, mentioning German atrocities is not well seen.
  But it is curious that the more we investigate in the history of WWII, we find different victims. 

Cephalonia Island
   In the case that we are going to relate, it is about Italian soldiers. After the invasion of Sicily in July 1943 by the Allies, the Italian government signed the armistice with the allies on September 8, 1943, so that the Italians ceased to be officially allies of Hitler, although Mussolici supported by the Germans maintained in northern Italy a certain time.
  
Cephalonia Island
In the Cephalonia Island in Greece the 33rd Acqui Infantry Division resisted to the German attempt to disarm them after the armistice of Italy with the allies, operation Achse.

The General Antonio Gandin was the commander of the 33rd Acqui Infantry Division , and on 11 September, the Italian High Command sent two explicit instructions to Gandin, to the effect that "German troops have to be viewed as hostile" and that "disarmament attempts by German forces must be resisted with weapons"



Antonio Gandin

   The situation was confusing. Gardin did not want to fight with the Germans who had been his allies but he did not want to disobey the terms of the allied armistice.

  Some German ships were sunk when they approached to the island. 

  Gandin presented his troops with a poll, essentially containing the three options presented to him by Barge (Lt Colonel Johannes Barge arrived with 2,000 men of the 966th Fortress Grenadier Regiment, including Fortress-Battalions 810 and 909 and a battery of self-propelled guns and nine tanks.)
  1. Join the Germans
  2. Surrender and be repatriated
  3. Resist the German forces
The response from the Italian troops was in favour of the third option by a large majority.
Despite help for the Italians from the local population, including the island's small ELAS partisan detachments the Italians were defeated.
At the end of the battle the Italians had 1200 dead and the Germans 300, although at the beginning of the battle the Italians took 400 German prisoners, the Italian soldiers were conscripted against the German professionals, something similar to the Malvinas war decades later.
 The massacre started on 21 September, and lasted for one week. After the Italian surrender, Hitler had issued an order allowing the Germans to summarily execute any Italian officer who resisted "for treason", and on 18 September, the German High Command issued an order stating that "because of the perfidious and treacherous behaviour [of the Italians] on Cephalonia, no prisoners are to be taken."[The Gebirgsjäger soldiers began executing their Italian prisoners in groups of four to ten.The Germans first killed the surrendering Italians, where they stood, using machine-guns. When a group of Bavarian soldiers objected to this practice they were threatened with summary execution themselves. After this stage was over, the Germans marched the remaining soldiers to the San Teodoro town hall and had the prisoners executed by eight member detachments. General Gandin and 137 of his senior officers were summarily court-martialled on 24 September and executed, their bodies discarded at sea.
Alfred Richter, an Austrian, and one of the participants in the massacre recounted how a soldier who sang arias for the Germans in the local taverns was forced to sing while his comrades were being executed. The singing soldier's fate remains unknown.Richter stated that he and his regiment comrades felt "a delirium of omnipotence" during the events. Most of the soldiers of the German regiment were Austrians. This event reminds me of the events of the holocaust by bullets in Poland and the USSR, when the Germans forced a young Jewish girl to dance naked on a table while they were machine gunning her people and with her parents.

Harald Von Hirschfeld 

"When people saw how cold-bloodedly the Germans slaughtered Italian soldiers, they were horrified," Perrotta explains. Enemies became allies as Greeks hid Italians to save them from death. Even today, the relationship between Greece and Italy is much less complicated than the relationship between Greece and Germany. 

In the 1950s, the remains of about 3,000 soldiers, including 189 officers, were exhumed and transported back to Italy for burial in the Italian War Cemetery in Bari. The remains of General Gandin were never identified.

German translator Doris Wille has lived in Kefalonia for almost 30 years. For many years, the massacre has accompanied her in her work and in her contact with people, though she learned about it by chance: "I had been living here for a few years before I heard about the massacre for the first time by chance at the end of the 1990s. I translated a travel guide about the island and saw that the Italian version contained a chapter about the massacre that was simply missing in the German version. When I asked the (Greek) author about it, she said that you couldn't expect German tourists to be able to deal with it. That's why she left it out."

Wille believes, one thing is neglected when focusing on the massacre: "What is often forgotten about when it comes to the horrific magnitude of this war crime is that there was also a lot of suffering among the Greek population. In the12 months of German occupation that followed the massacre, villages were torched and people executed." In recent years, there has been an increase in publications on the subject, Wille emphasizes. But Germany still has a lot of catching up to do in terms of understanding the years of occupation in Greece.
Hubert Lanz

As usual the killers were not punished or they were punished very lightly. Only Hirschfeld’s superior commander, General Hubert Lanz, was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment at the so-called "Southeast Case" of the Nuremberg Trials for the Cephalonia massacre, as well as the participation of his men in other atrocities in Greece like the massacre of Kommeno on 16 August 1943.He was released in 1951 and died in 1982. Lt Colonel Barge was not on the island when the massacre was taking place. He was subsequently decorated with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for his service in Crete. He died in 2000

What makes the Germans so lethal to other people? As an Englishman said, it will be a long time before they are allowed to enter the club of civilized countries again, but everything is forgotten and they dominate, economically, Europe again.

Thursday, 10 May 2018

The Germans are vampires of children ... literally

The atrocities committed by the Germans are so many and so cruel that it is hard to believe them. The Germans hid them for decades in the postwar period, aided by the Americans and the English since the Nazis and the Philonazis who ruled in post-war Germany were their allies against Russia in the cold war.

Even now many of the atrocities are still hidden, most of the population knows the concentration camps and the gas chambers, but little or nothing of the mobile gas chambers, the burning of entire villages with all their inhabitants, of burying alive to the prisoners or to extract the blood of the Russian children until they died to provide it to the wounded Germans.

Yes. This seems horror movie happened, and not by a sadistic individual like Mengele but in a systematic and widespread form.
Resultado de imagen
Svletana Alexievich
In her splendid book, Svetlana Alexievich, Nobel Prize for literature, collects the stories of Russian children during the war. Shudder read it.


Location of  Belarus  (green)in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Belorus
Belarus has been one of the republics of the Soviet Union that suffered most during WWII, lost one in every four inhabitants and the Germans created true demographic deserts in her.

The Germans murdered civilians in 5,295 different localities in occupied Soviet Belarus. and the population of Belarus did not regain its pre-war level until 1971.Germany destroyed 209 out of 290 cities in the republic, 85% of the republic's industry, and more than one million buildings.
In Svetlana Alexievich´s book a child of only four years , Sasha Suetin relates:
  
  I only remember my mother ...


First picture ...

My mother always wore a white coat ... My fatherhe was official, my mother worked in the hospital. That's what my older brother counted later. I just remember my mom's white coat. I do not even remember his face,only the white coat ... And also his white cap; She left italways on top of a small table, upright,never on the side; It was starched.

Second image ...

Mom has not come home ... I had become used tothat my father was out often, but Mom always coming home. My brother and I are left alone in home several days, we would not go out: "What if mom comes back?" . Someone knocked on the door. They are strangers, they dress us and they take us somewhere. I cry.

-Mom! Where is my mom?

-Don't cry, mom will find us. -My brother reassures He's three years older than me.
We were in a house, or in a long barrack, sitting in platforms to sleep. Hunger is constant, I suckthe buttons on the shirt, look like candy Dad brings me from his trips. I wait for mom.

Third image ...

A man puts me and my brother in a corner of the platform. He covers us with a blanket, he throws some rags above. I cry and he caresses my hair.
I calm down

Every day it repeats itself. One of the times I'm bored of waiting so long under the blanket and
begin to cry for low, then cry loudly. Someone appears,take the rags and pull the blanket. I open my eyes: in front of me there is a woman wrapped in a white coat.
-Mom! - I crawl towards her.

She caresses me. First the hair ..., then the hand ... Then take something out of a small metal box.I do not notice anything, I only see the white coat and the hat white.
Suddenly, a sharp pain in the hand! I have one needle stuck in the skin. I scream and I faint. I recover, next to me sits the man who has been hiding us On the other side, my brother is lying down.
-Don't be afraid -the man tells me- o He is not dead, he is asleep.

- It was not mom?
-Do not ...
-She had a white coat, like mom ... I repit again and again, and another.
-I made a toy. -The man passes me a Little ball of rag.
I take the toy and I stop crying.

I do not remember anything of what happened next: who and how did they save us from the German concentration camp? There the children drew blood for the German soldiers wounded. The children died. How did my brother and me arrived to the orphanage? How, at the end of the war, we received the warning of the death of our parents? Something happened to me in the memory. I do not remember faces, I do not remember words ...

The war finished. I started the first course. Other children they would read a poem two or three times and they would able to remember it. With ten times I was not able to learn it from memory,  but for some reason the teachers did not put me never bad notes. To others yes, to me no.

This is all my history.

It´s difficult don´t cry after read this......

A testimony of Valia Matushkova, five years :

«HIS MILITARY SHIRT WAS WET ...»

Valia Mátiushkova, five years

She is currently an engineer

I'll surprise her! I would like to remember something funny. Cheerful. I like to laugh, I do not want to cry. Oh, oh, oh ... It's already, I'm crying again ...

My father takes me to motherhood and tells me that ee will buy a child. I want to know what my little brother. I ask my father: «and how is it?». Heanswered : "He's a very small kid."
Suddenly, my father and I are in a very high place , the smoke comes through the window. Dad carries me in his arms;I ask that we return, that I have left my beautiful small bag. I get angry and I cry. Dad is quiet and he narrows me down to  him, he tightens me so hard that I can not breathe. Soon my father disappears, I walk down the Street with a woman. We pass in front of a fence, after it are the prisoners of war. It's hot, they ask us give them water. I have two candies in my pocket. I throw them above the wire fence. But how come I have those  twins sweets ? I do not remember. Some throw bread ... Cucumbers ... The guard shoots and we run ...

It's amazing, but I remember all that ... With detail ...

I remember in the juvenile center, which was close to with a wire. They were guarding us German soldiers and dogs; they were German shepherds. Among the children there was some who could not even walk, crawled. When they were hungry, they licked the soil ... They ate the dirt ...These were dying soon. The food was very bad; of the bread that they gave us our tongue swelled, so much that I could not speak. We do not even talk We only thought about eating. You had just have breakfast and you were already asking: "What will there be for the lunch? ». You had lunch and thought: "What will there be for dinner?"

We went under the wire and escaped to the city. Our only objective was to go and look for garbage  Hit with a herring skin or with a few potatoes was an event. We eat them raws.
I remember that once, in the dumpster, I was caught by a man. I panicked.

- Sir, I will not do it again.
He wonder:
-Where is your family?
-I do not have. I'm from the juvenile center.

He took me to his house and gave me food. In his house there  was only potatoes to eat. They boiled potatoes and I ate a whole casserole.
From the children's center they moved us to an orphanage; the orphanage was in front of the building of the High School of Medicine, there the German hospital was installed. I remember the low windows, the heavy shutters that they closed at night.
There they fed us very well, I gained weight. A woman that cleaned it there, it took me a lot of love. I felt sorry for all the children, but above all for me. When they were coming to take blood, we all tried to hide:

"The doctors are coming ..." She hid me in some corner. And he kept repeating that I looked like his daughter. The other children got under the beds and from there they were taken out with some bait: one day was a piece of bread, another day a toy. A little red ball was engraved on me ...
"The doctors" left and I went back to the room... I remember a little boy lying on a bed, his arm hung out of the bed, dripping blood.

The other children cried ... Every two or three weeks different children. Some were taken away, very weak and pales, and brought the new ones. These were fed very well.
German doctors believed that children's blood less than five years old, did that the German wounded recovered better. They believed that it possessed rejuvenating properties.
I found out later, of course, much later ...

But then I was dying to have a pretty toy.That red ball.
When the Germans left Minsk ... in retreat...that woman who helped me took us outside: "If you  ihave someone family, look for them. If you do not have parents, go to any village: the people will save you ».

I did what he told us. I went to live at the house of a old woman ... I do not remember hher name, or what village she was. Remember that they arrested their daughter and we were both alone: an old woman and a girl. To endure a whole week we only had a piece of bread.
I was the last to know that the village had been liberated. I was sick. When I found out, I got up and I went to school. I was hooked on the first soldier I saw. I remember that his military shirt was completely wet.

Of so many hugs, tears and kisses.                                                 

It´s amazing that this is a organizated chain of killers of children, doctors, nurses, soldiers and no one was punished !

Other testimony :

It is the Estate Of Winczent-Pokrewski. The enormous halls of architectural monument during the war were hospital chambers for the injured German soldiers and the officers. 

- Here was a German garrison… And in this building all rooms, and here them there were about 33, they were filled by the injured. And these injured needed the fresh donor blood, tells the scientific worker of memorial “Belorussian children - the victims of fascism” Ludmila MELASHCHENKO. In the same building - the occupiers held about 2000 children. Predominantly girls from 8 to 14 years. the 1st group of the blood and positive Rh factor were most frequently encountered precisely in them. Benevolent aunts in the white dressing gowns regularly came and took away children by groups. They placed to the tables under the inclination and pushed through slender knobs into the openings in the wall. They took away the blood completely, and bodies were bur

And another :

http://fakty.ua/135223-zaglyanuv-v-kladovuyu-ya-uvidela-slozhennye-v-shtabel-tela-detej

If you look in the pantry, I saw a pile of bodies piled in the kids' 

70 years ago in the occupied Makeyevka Samokhina Galina and her brother became prisoners of the shelter in which the Nazis used children as donors for the wounded German soldiers

In Makeevka Donetsk region there is the world's only monument to the donor children, who during the Great Patriotic War took blood for the injured occupants. Monument to murdered juvenile donors have set in place of their alleged dumping: in 1943, when Soviet troops liberated the Makeyevka, in the neighborhood Sotsgorodok of six shallow pits removed 300 children's bodies. According to the pathologists, were part of a commission to investigate Nazi crimes, these children have died from infectious diseases, and extreme exhaustion. "The complete absence of subcutaneous fat," - noted in an act of commission. They were mostly children from the Nazis set up a shelter, "Charity" in the dungeons of which have visited about 600 boys and girls aged from six months to 14 years.
...
- They fed us badly: overthrow the cart in the yard of rotten beets or corn on the cob dry, from which as much teeth chattered, and we are eagerly snapped up by all this so as not to starve to death, - says Galina. - Day of the mass poisoning, I remember very well. The street was unbearable heat. In the shelter brought the barrel with the blood of slaughtered animals, which swam green flies. This goo baked and gave us breakfast. By 11 o'clock in the morning all were poisoned. Many people, especially young children, died. I have the same dark eyes, I went outside and lay down on the bench, which stood at the entrance. The nurse grabbed me by the hair and dragged him off somewhere. "Easy to wash!" - She cried. All surviving children have a gastric lavage.

Prisoners kill shelter in no hurry: they were needed as donors for the wounded German soldiers.

- Nanny came to me and said, "You have to take a blood test," relegated to a room where I took the blood - says my companion. - But once I tried to escape. Because after these reviews I was very ill for several days dizzy.

Gale could not escape. Nurse grabbed her arm and pulled her into the room where the medical office. While the guard dragged her down the hallway, the girl saw in the room carried the lifeless body of a boy.

The only monument to the children :

Image
The world's only memorial complex of the donor children, victims of Nazism, is in Makeyevka Donetsk region, Ukraine. On the stele of black granite inscribed only the names of 120 victims of Nazism.
http://www.proshkolu.ru/club/vov1941-45/file2/120294
After all this, do you consider that Germans are like other nations? I do not believe it.

Vampires of the Wehrmacht
Darkest attrocities



Saturday, 14 April 2018

More War Criminals without punishment, or almost


Germany has a complicated and dark twentieth century. Just remember the dismal III Reich. The northern Land of Schleswig-Holstein, is one of those regions where it must hurt to remember. Because, in its day, this region that borders Denmark was one of the German areas where the Nazis achieved more success on their way to power. And, above all, because after the Second World War, the reinsertion of members of the German National Socialist Workers Party (NSDAP, according to its German acronym) was commonplace.

Notables of the totalitarian regime of Adolf Hitler also tried to enjoy there, with more or less success, a second chance. "Schleswig-Holstein sadly has that fame. In the 60s and 70s it was known that there were many cases here of authentic hidden war criminals, who lived undisturbed for a decade or more, "says Karen Bruhn, historian at the Christian Albrecht University in Kiel. "In the 60s it was investigated, but the investigations focused on the most relevant people, and many people with a past in the Nazi party could be integrated into the new democratic state," Bruhn writes.

Names like Werner Catel, known to practice euthanasia to children in times of Nazism, is one of those relevant figures. "Catel is a well-known example, he lived until his death in Kiel and was a professor at the University of Kiel after the war," recalls Bruhn. Kiel is the capital of Schleswig-Holstein. Eighty kilometers south of that city lies Lübeck, where Ernst Lautz, who was the Attorney General of the Third Reich, would live until his last days. This man was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment in Nuremberg. He ended up being released early in 1951, which took the opportunity to settle in Lübeck until his death in 1977.

A doctor who practiced euthanasia on children

In the case of Catel, in 1960 his role in the euthanasia system began to be made public to children with mental illnesses in the National Socialist regime. His retirement, in line with the controversy generated, seemed to be a product of circumstances. It has been estimated that some 5,000 people were victims of the euthanasia system that Catel participated in. After his retirement in Kiel, Catel remained intellectually active, writing several books, mainly on his medical specialty, pediatrics.
 
Werner Catel before
One case among thousands : 
In early 1939 a farm labourer called Richard Kretschmar requested Catel's permission to euthanise one of his children, now identified as Gerhard Kretschmar, who had been born blind and deformed. Catel deferred the matter and suggested the father write directly to Hitler  for permission. Hitler subsequently sent Dr.Karl Brandt to confer with Catel and decide on a course of action. On July 25, 1939 the child was killed.
Werner Catel after

 After the war Catel took charge of the Mammolshöhe Children's Mental Home near Kronberg , where he continued to rally for the euthanasia of children deemed beyond hope. In 1949 he was found to have committed no grave crimes by a denazification  board in Hamburg , and became attached to the University of Kiel in 1954. There was serious discussion after his death in 1981 of establishing a Werner Catel Foundation with $200,000 from his estate, but the idea was finally dismissed in 1984.

A lawyer of the Nazi state

Ernst Lautz, the Nazi state lawyer sentenced to ten years in prison in Nuremberg, for his part,

Ernst Lautz

participated in the execution of laws against Poles and Jews in the territories annexed by the Third Reich in Eastern Europe. That cost him a conviction for war crimes. But that punishment was abbreviated as was also reduced the life sentence imposed on Franz Lautz was released on parole on Jan. 31, 1951, after serving a little more than three years.

 In 1936 he became Attorney General in Berlin and moved in 1937 to Karlsruhe. Lautz, who joined the NSDAP in May 1933, became a prosecutor at the People's Court from 1 July 1939. He attended the meeting of the highest jurists of the Reich on 23 and 24 April 1941 in Berlin, in which Viktor Brack and Werner Heyde informed about the "destruction of life unworthy of life" in the gas chambers of the T4 campaign. He was in the trial against participants of the assassination of 20 July 1944 representative of the indictment. On January 30, 1945, he and Roland Freisler appealed to the German justice system to affirm allegiance to the "Führer".

 Lautz lived after his release until his death in Lübeck. The pension office in Kiel  had its pension claims since December 1, 1952 (1951 and 1952 was entitled to his position and salary as chief prosecutor) of a high-level lawyer on the 1936 under the National Socialists promotion to Attorney General at the Berlin Court of Appeal "shortened". The political scandal in the Federal Republic revealed by the Stuttgarter Nachrichten in December 1956 (after five years) led after another five years of disciplinary juridical battles (it was also about, with which title one was allowed to address him: "Reichsanwalt aD") finally to a " Gnadenpension "of 600 DM. An attempt was not made by Eugen Gerstenmaier, because the treaty for the settlement of war and occupation issues of May 26, 1952 forbade a repeated condemnation by German courts.
Ernst Launtz

 Can you get an idea of the thousands killed by this man with that seems a innocent-looking jurist when he is in prison?




Schlegelberger Reich Minister of Justice


Schlegelberger, who was Minister of Justice of the Third Reich between 1941 and 1942.


Schlegelberger  was firmly condemned in Nuremberg to life imprisonment. His participation in war crimes and against humanity was proven there.
Schlegelberger became provisional Reich Minister of Justice for the years 1941 and 1942, followed then by Otto Thierack. During his time in office the number of death sentences rose sharply. He authored the bills such as the so-called Poland Penal Law Provision (Polenstrafrechtsverordnung) under which Poles were executed for tearing down German posters. Schlegelberger's attitude towards his job may be best encapsulated in a letter to Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellery Hans Heinrich Lammers:

Dear Reich Minister Dr. Lammers,
Schlegelberger
Upon the Führer-order of 24 October 1941 forwarded to me through Mr. State Minister and Chief of the Führer's and Reich Chancellor's Presidial Chancellery, I have handed the Jew Markus Luftglass, sentenced to 2½ years in prison by the Special Court in Katowice, over to the Gestapo for execution.
Heil Hitler!
Your
most obedient
— Schlegelberger

 However, for medical reasons, he was released in 1950. He lived two decades in Flensburg until his death on December 14, 1970. Flensburg, practically on the German-Danish border .For years afterward, he drew a monthly pension of DM 2,894 (for comparison, the average monthly income in Germany at that time was DM 535)

The widow of a Jewish Holocaust architect

Another personality infamous for his connection to the original Nazism of Schleswig-Holstein is Lina Heydrich. This woman died in her hometown, Fehmarn (east of Schleswig-Holstein), in 1985. Lina took much of her life the name of her first husband, Reinhard Heydrich. This high office of the III Reich is considered one of the architects of the Holocaust. Because of its implacable and cold character, Adolf Hitler called him in his day "the man with the heart of steel".
Heydrich and wife

Heydrich died in 1942 after being injured in the so-called Operation Anthropoid. This was an attack carried out by Czech and Slovak agents that would end up costing the life to which he was responsible for the Central Office of Security of the Reich and Nazi leader in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia -now the Czech Republic-. His wife, Lina, showed that she never forgot it. She dedicated his memoirs, published in 1976. They were entitled Leben mit einem Kriegsverbrechen (Ed. Ludwig Verlag, 1976) or "Life with a war criminal".
Heydrich & wife


Cases like those of Heydrich, Schlegelberger, Lautz or Catel may be the most notorious. But there were a huge number of people with a Nazi past who re-established their lives in Schleswig-Holstein. In post-World War II Germany, denazification did not come immediately after Hitler's suicide or with the German capitulation of May 7, 1945. In the case of Schleswig-Holstein, the fact arises that, before conflict, it was already one of the regions that most support the Nazi party had experienced.

"In the general elections of July 1932, the increase of the votes to the Nazi party reached a record of 51% when in the rest of the country the increase was of 37.7%", according to the accounts of the historian Anthony McEllignott, of the University of Limerick (Ireland). Those who, like him, have studied the Schleswig-Holstein case, note that in no other region of Germany did the Nazi party's support grow in its phase of political ascent.

The most Nazi region in the 30s

Hence Schleswig-Holstein he calls "the brown province". The brown, in the chromatic code with which the German political parties are identified, is the color attributed to the NSDAP. Currently, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) of Chancellor Angela Merkel is the black and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) is the red. After the Second World War, the brown influence in German politics could be considered to have disappeared. But the Nazis were still there. In the regional parliament of Schleswig-Holstein, without going any further.
Schleswig-Holstein

"In Schleswig-Holstein, from the elections to the regional Parliament of 1958, it is known that 50% of the members of the chamber were former members of the Nazi party," explains Bruhn, the history specialist for the northern German Land. "But these members did not have antidemocratic behavior, the old elites of the regime worked here, yes, but integrated into the new country," says this historian, alluding to West Germanyparison, the average monthly income in Germany at that time was DM 535).