Russia gained in solitude the second World War in Europe.

  The original object of this essay was to show, inicially for the students of WWII and Spanish-speaking readership up ( in the spanish traduction ) ,an incredible fact for the clear thing that is and the ignored that it has been supported in the western mass media undoubtedly of a deliberate form, as it is that the winner almost exclusive of the second world war in Europe has been Russia, the ancient Soviet Union to be more exact.

   We will make use of the thread of the events to discover some other ignored facts and of an enormous magnitude, like the slaughter of a form very cruel of million Russian prisoners (between 3 and 4) in only a few months of 1941 for the Germans and as there is false the idea of that the German people was ignoring the murders in mass and the cruelty against the Jews and other races but rather it was approving it in his immense majority, as well as other ignored facts and of big importance. There exist many other topics, the German groups of extermination that were going behind the combatants' first line and which mission was to exterminate entire populations, to every population, men women and children as one has never seen in the history of the civilized peoples, but there is so extensive the topic and so many cruelties committed by the Germans that this is a source of other essays and on whom there is abundant bibliography although not so much as it had to. It is curious that the suffering of the German people, in his severest form of only a few months (ends of 1944 and beginning of 1945) it occupies many other essays in the western bibliography that the years of suffering of the Russian people from 1941 until 1945, another sample of the false western information about very important facts, which last example has been the information of the war of Osetia of the South, where the aggressors (Georgia) were presented like the invaded ones, but this is another topic. Also it is interesting like most of the criminal Nazi they escaped without punishment and as the West Germany protected them and set free without any type of shame, even raising them to high places in the new German army, Germany even has waited until 2009 to rehabilitate the Germans considered to be traitors by the Nazi and has closed the access to the general public to the files on the holocaust and the fields of extermination when they returned the Allied Forces to themselves, but unfortunately we have no space for all this

  We will analyze briefly the context in which the Hispanic speakers we have received information from the 50s We must remember that the context in the world was moving, full cold war, and the Russians were identified immediately like communists and this was almost how to say devils, there was nothing worse. We were receiving all the information from the western news agencies, especially from the United States and England and the possibilities that it was coming to us some trustworthy information of what happened in the communist countries was practically void, to this, it is just to say it, also he was contributing the stubbornness informative of the above mentioned systems and a propaganda of few veracity on behalf of them, if some onlooker was tuning in to the broadcasting stations in short wave in Spanish of this epoch and later, the news about the Eastern bloc was of the harness of "medal to the winning tractor man of the harvest of..." and other similars, what it does not attract precisely.

   By it all the information, magazines, documentaries, books, "comics" warlike, etc., was disproportionately inclined of the Anglo-American effort talking each other the real winners of the war, the Russians, like something tangential. It must not us surprise since the Anglo-Saxons have managed to make to forget almost that the discoverer of America was Spain, fact that is difficult to think in the textbooks of the United States that they dignify Columbus and not Spain, as well as that practically the whole West of the United States was a Mexican until it was snatched them by a war in 1848. Even current video collections dedicate more than 90 % of his chapters to the Anglo-American effort, the battle of England, the landing of Normandy, etc. and only the rest to the struggle in the west of Europe, and more recently Spanish mass media after there are fulfilled seventy years of the beginning of the second world war again incline the scales of the Anglo-American side, for example on having quoted fifteen warlike movies, one is not even Russian, not even the wonderful one "Come and look" of Elem Klimov (1985).

   Assuming therefore that this disinformation comes from background and continues, making true the saying of which "calumny that something stays". We will try to clarify at least some aspects of the truth and give some rules so that the interested parties study in depth the topic for his account.

The introductions of the war.

  The war between Russia (from now on I will use the term of Russia although in most of the occasions we will refer to the ancient USSR) and Germany was inevitable, already one of the causes of the first world war was the worry on the part of Germany of the rapid and enormous development that was having the tsarist Russia. With his men's immense potential, territory and prime matters was destined to be the first world potency, but the wars and the communism entrusted themselves of cutting this hope, it is necessary to ask us where she should come without this consecutive series of catastrophes, bearing in mind what it has obtained in spite of all this.

  Relationship between the communist Russia and Germany between the end of the first world war and 1941, they were even cordial, be enough to point out some examples as that after the defeated Germany should be deprived of army by the agreement of Versailles, it tested his tactics of tanks and aviation in Russia that transferred area for his practices and the necessary material means, this also contributed that the Russian officials were meeting better his future adversaries.

   An internal fact that it affected gravely to the capacity of army of the USSR there were the purges that Stalin carried out between him about 1937. Be enough to say that of 90 generals only they survived six, of 180 commanders of division, only 36 escaped and 34.000 officials were purged of one or another form, (a), most of them executed or exiled to works forced in the GULAG as it was named the set of Russian forced labor camps.

  Another sample of the existing collaboration between Germany and the USSR in these days was the supply of all kinds of materials of Russia to Germany, even considered strategic and that they continued until the same day of beginning of the war and let's not forget a fact that surprised everybody like the non-aggression pact between them in 1939.

   It did not have minor importance that big part of the western border of the USSR, which was bordering on Germany precisely, had been annexed of Poland recently (1939), since this one had been distributed - for third time in the recent history - between Germany and Russia. Precisely by it big part of the Russian fortifications in the newly annexed part of Poland was not finished in 1941 when it began the war.

   Stalin did not want the war with Germany, at least in this epoch, no way, it was his worst nightmare . Stalin was a dictator of the worst specie, a genocide without conscience who allowed to die of famine million persons in 1931 in Ukraine and other parts of the USSR preventing even help from being given them, all this for refusing to the collectivization of the grounds or simply for not having produced sufficiently harvest as the five-year plan, although this was largely a fault of the lies of the proper local communists anxiously for fulfill with the above mentioned plans and standing out before Moscow . But Stalin was a born survivor, capable of the biggest perfidies and cruelties to manage and to continue in the power, concealing even the Lenin's testament, for it the war with Germany was one of the biggest dangers to continue in his all-embracing power.

  The advices of the imminent war there were multiple, a lot of numerous German flights of recognition, enclosed with emergency landing of some German planes in Russian soil, allowing them the Russians even to return to Germany with his photos of the Russian defenses, the same day of the invasion a few hours earlier a German soldier deserted communicating the exact hour of the invasion, but they did not believe him, also the English secret service communicated the invasion, but Stalin did dull ears to all the notices, good is true that there had been several previous false alarms, but especially it was he the one that was refusing to admit the clear facts grasped to Hitler's word, it even prevented the Russian troops from putting themselves in the maximum state of alert as he was requested by some of his generals that saw the imminent invasion.
The war

  On June 22, 1941 the German troops invaded the USSR, the first ones in suffering his advance there were the frontier guards, who were living with his families in the houses close to his garrison and that, mostly, perished with them. The Germans resorted to all kinds of dirty tricks from the beginning, like calling the Russian border guards communicating to them that had to give them an important notice and to machine-gun them as they were going out, or to send saboteurs with Russian and Russian uniform speakers behind the Russian lines, creating the chaos in the Russian communications the first days of the war. The German aviation destroyed almost any Russian aviation (that was superior in number to the German in ground, most of his attacks surprise they were successful, except in Sevastopol where the admiral to the control yes had set in and the alert to the garrison, suffering the most serious personal risk, since in this epoch any mistake in the fulfillment of the orders was punished by the severest sorrow for the culprit and his family, we already do not say a disobedience. For it the attack to Sevastopol was not successful that the Germans were wishing, since the antiaircraft defenses and of the fleet they frustrated the attack. How many movies have we seen of the attack of the Japanese to Pearl Harbour and how many of the German attack to Sevastopol? Another sample of the different pole of measuring Anglo-Saxon.

   From the beginning the Germans realized that the war in Russia was not going to be like the easy battles of the western front in France, or Belgium, the Russian soldiers were defending themselves up to the death, even in spite of being in many cases awfully armed.

  Stalin when the German invasion was clear and general Zhukov gave order that was waking up him, since it was in his residence of the outskirts of Moscow, communicating to him that "our cities are being bombarded", it shut itself up in an entire silence, being isolating for proper decision several days, just in the moment that his decisions were more necessary, Until a commission headed by Molotov, went to look for him so that it was returning to his functions, a sample of the mentality of Stalin that it clarifies why of so many purges murders, etc., it is that when they went to look for him he believed that they were going to put him in prison, until Molotov said to him that only they wanted that he was on board again. Stalín was always frightened all at once or a conspiracy against him, as himself had done against so many people many times.
  The German quick war or "blitzkreig" it it was not so much in Russia, be enough to point out that the Germans were late more in coming to Moscow that the French in 1812, Napoleon brought in in Russia on June 24, 1812 and occupied Moscow on September 14, Hitler invaded Russia on June 22, 1941 and December 5, 1941 came to the suburbs of Moscow, where it was pushed back. Although Russia was facing alone the whole German army, since this one did not have in these dates any other open front.

  From the beginning there was strong resistance, facing the Germans in multiple battles hundreds of Russian tanks, nevertheless these had to suffer a chaos of communications and an absence of control of the air space as what the Germans had many tricks in his favor, but in some cases the Russians pushed the German attack back and even began counter-attacking being able to invade German territory, but Stalin it prevented, giving order not to counter-attack when heavy German bombings were already suffered and the invasion was clear.

  In this first phase of the war the Germans were successful in there surrounded enormous masses of Russian soldiers who after heroic defense did not have any more destination than the captivity except a minority that managed to break the blockade and return to his lines

  The destination of these soldiers was in the most atrocious way, the Germans had not arranged enough material to receive them and they were surprised of their own success, taking refuge in the excuse of which the USSR had not signed the convention of Geneva, they condemned them to the most atrocious death, the majority died of famine in a few months, entire divisions (1 division = 10.000 men approximately) were left outdoors but many were tortured of the most varied forms, At least 3.300.000 soldiers were murdered in these months [1] (a).

  The war against Russia was a war of extermination, very different from the conventional wars, the whole population wanted to be exterminated by the most diverse methods, from the famine to the execution, to leave space to the German "settlers".

  The gas "Ziklon" with which million persons would be exterminated in the German concentration camps was tested first with 300 Russian prisoners. The death for this gas, also unlike what is thought, was quite less benign, the death usually occurred after approximately ten or fifteen minutes, let's do the test taking a chronometer and let's think about the agony of all these human beings during these minutes suffocating. The scenes inside the gas cameras were Dantesque, since the prisoners were trying to go out where they were having entered and the strongest were setting on themselves on more dweebs, when it was talking each other of civil, the men were above, the women below and at the bottom of everything the children, all this mixed with blood, rusts and feces. Certainly it is very different to speak that the Germans killed million human beings to be brought in in the detail.

  The battles before Moscow were multiple, also we must bear in mind that the countries satellites of the Germans, Finland (that had been Russian until 1917), Romania, Bulgaria, etc, they attacked also to Russia, the Finnish attack was especially serious therefore he supposed of danger for Leningrad, current Saint Petersburg, the second Russian city in importance and that it had been the capital from his foundation for Peter the Great until Lenin transferred the capital status to Moscow "provisionally".

  The fortitude of Brest-Likov, just on the border, resisted several months, even in spite of the lack of supplies and water, giving an example of heroism to which they would continue many different for all the geography of the USSR.

  After the fall of Kiev and Minsk, the capitals of Ukraine and Belorussia respectively, the Germans came in December, 1941 to Moscow where there suffered his first big defeat, even with panic scenes inside the German army before the irruption of the new Russian weapon, the rocket launchers "katiusha", the new tanks T-34, the enormous effort gunner and the Siberian troops of reinforcement, troops that had paraded a few hours before his march at the head before Stalin and the biggest dome of the state of the USSR in the red square the anniversary of the revolution of October 27 according to the Julian calendar who was governing in Russia in this epoch, for us that we are ruled by the Gregorian calendar, it is November 7. Let's think what it should have been this parade under the snow of a few great troops of them newly arrived persons and that a few hours later they were going to die largely in the front placed to only a few quilometros from there, so it was fighting in the outskirts of Moscow. A similar situation, although in minor scale, it happened in Madrid when the international brigades came to defend the city in November, 1937.

  Here in the outskirts of Moscow the first importance reverse was infringed to the German army, considering the winter arrival, the Germans and his propagandists adduced that it was stemming from the low temperatures, to that the troops were not prepared, etc., but the true thing is that it stemmed from the technical, tactical and human superiority of the Russians. Germany is not placed in the Ecuador precisely and his winters are very severe with temperatures under zero.
  The Germans were despising the capacity of the army and of the Russian people, for it the appearance of tanks better than theirs in rapidity, they surprised shielding and fire potency very much.

  Nevertheless the proximity of the Germans to Moscow produced panic scenes in the civil population of the city, even with anti-communist scenes, which diminished in a few days thanks to the performance of the Soviet special police the NKVD and to which Stalin, unlike his government remained in Moscow.
  Also the Germans came to the proximities of Leningrad in the winter 1941, surrounding it with help of the Finnish troops. The encirclement was becoming closer staying only the possibility of giving food and ammunitions the city for the lake Ladoga submitted to the German bombing by ground and air, when this one froze there was created "the highway of the life" that at least took enough meal and ammunition to resist and to survive, nevertheless the suffering of the Russian population of Leningrad was enormous, writing one of the most tragic pages of the war. In almost 900 days of siege approximately a million persons died of famine, entire families were dying of famine in a few apartments without running water or heating, let's imagine what can be this in a climate with 20 or 30th low zero. More persons died in Leningrad, a million of famine and between 1.100.000 and 1.500.000 including the military men [2], that the sum of all the North American soldiers (300.000) and Englishmen (400.000) in the whole war.

  There exists a horrifying diary of a 11-year-old Russian girl, Tanya Savicheva, in Leningrad who is reporting the death, one for one, of all his family. Again, unlike "The Newspaper of Ann Frank", this one daily is not completely known in Occident.
  In the winter 1941 it went over therefore to a certain stabilization of the front, doing smithereens to him the German hopes of an easy and rapid victory. We must think that if the invasion began in June, 1941 in December of the same year already the Germans had suffered his first big defeat in addition to numerous counterattacks. That is to say only six months after the beginning of the invasion.

  Other of many ignored aspects and that was a determinant factor for the Russian victory, was the transfer of thousands of factories in danger of coming across at a sure distance in the Urals or beyond them, in Siberia. This immense effort, to dismantle a factory informs, to move it, to mount it and to put it in functioning within a period of truly scarce time is one of the biggest facts realized by a country. Let's think that only one medium factory needs for his transport: more than three thousand railroad cars!, and, on having come, the factory must have prepared soil, waters down, electricity and other facilities necessary for his functioning. For the eyes of a Latin American this organization prodigy is even more praiseworthy, given our deficit precisely in these aspects. The Russians moved 1.523 factories to surer areas of the river Volga, Siberia and Central Asia only between July and November, 1941, more than million and a half cars was used [3].

  The German offensive after be stopped in the North focused towards the South of Russia and in the spring 1942 it stuffed itself in this direction. Again the heroic acts on the part of the Russians and other nationalities of the USSR happened, especially the defense of the peninsula of Crimea and of the cities of Odesa and Sevastopol, there were examples of a heroism without limits, as well as of a cruelty, also without limits on the part of the Germans who, between others, used to civil like human shields opposite to his troops on having attacked Soviet positions. In September, 1942 Stalingrado was reached, very much one has spoken about this battle, where 478.741 Russian soldiers died and 393.575 were hurt, and the civil population did not count, but little of any episodes so atrocious as the battle itself. Before the attack for ground an air raid happened to Stalingrado to the city on August 23, 1942, this attack took for surprise the citizens who enjoyed a splendid holiday in the parks and walks of the beautiful city, the slaughter was enormous 5.000 civil ones died this day and 40.000 [4] in this week; let's remember that in all the bombings of London, from 1940 to 1945 dead 43.000 persons [5], that day many children remained orphans and many families without children, there exists a horrifying history of a Russian city dweller who tried to evacuate the newly orphan ones to another shore of the river Volga to put them in safety, and as the huerfanitos were along with the bodies of his dead parents placing well the clothes to them and as some of them refused to accompany it, since they did not want to leave the corpses of his parents and mothers, being exhibited to an almost sure death with the German advance. Desolated the charitable city dweller had to leave them and take the rest of the orphans to another shore.
  How many have heard speaking about the bombings of London and how many of these bombings of Stalingrad?
  The battle was enormously bloody, the Germans occupied almost the whole city, rather her debris, and the Russians had to send the reinforcements and evacuate the injured men for the rivers under the German fire. It was a hell in the ground.

  Nevertheless the necessary time was gained to prepare the operation Pluto that it shut up in a bag to the Eighth German army who was the one that was fighting in Stalingrad, approximately 330.000 men remained isolated of the rest of the army and to finish with them was only a time question.

  Very much one has spoken about the few German prisoners of Stalingrad that returned lively of the captivity, but little of his atrocities. For example, they had inside the encirclement a small field of Russian prisoners approximately 3.000 - 5.000 men and they allowed them to die literally of famine, deprived the civil population of his clothes, even interiors and expelled them from his houses. This in the Russian winter was to condemn them practically to the death, with the curious detail of seeing German soldiers with feminine underwear to wrap itself up, they deprived even the babies and they were murdering the civil population joining them for couples, for example father with son or mother with daughter, were giving a shot in the head to one of and were leaving living other throwing both to the frozen river.
  The dealing to the rest of the civil population was the same way atrocious many were sent to Krpovka and other fields, but there were no not even concentration camps there were spaces outdoors surrounded with wire and in the icy nights many people died of cold, the prisoners were trying to do hollows in the ground with the naked hands to escape of the cold. A survivor Valentina Nefyodova told how in a nearby hole a mother had to a child and a girl children in his knees, the girl survived but the child died of cold in his arms on the same night [6].

  When one knows all this the punishment of these killers seems small to him and enormous the Soviet generosity of allowing the return of some to a few years. We, the Hispanic people must be proud from that in spite of our many defects we have never come to the grades of cruelty and barbarism of the Germans, at least of the massive form in which they took place and which there informed both the SS and the regular army with the concession of his people.
  Stalingrad was the point of inflection of the war if Moscow supposed the stagnation of the north front, Stalingrad gave beginning to the victorious Russian counterattack.
  Many battles stayed ahead like the enormous one of Kursk, the biggest battle of tanks of the history and the invasion of Germany and the countries satellites, Austria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, etc, but the career towards the victory started in Stalingrad. The battle of Kursk was the result of wanting to take the Germans this city reconquered by the Russians and that had remained isolated like a protrusion in the front. The Russians foreseeing the German attack created up to five defense lines, preventing the Germans from taking Kursk and with better tactics, tactics that the Russian army had been improving as the war was advancing, defeated the Germans, so much resisting as in open field. Consequence of this new German defeat was a counter-offensive (operation Kutuzov) that between other cities Belgorod and Harkov liberated.

  In this battle there happened the biggest battle of tanks of the history and the Russians demonstrated, again, that they could stop the German quick war "blitzkreig" and that his tanks and soldiers were better than the Germans, exiling the myth of the numerical superiority, since the casualties and the conflicting armies were similar.
  Let's revise a little the dates to see that they were doing rest of western potency in Europe, now when Russia was beginning already gaining the war, with an enormous cost of human lives, after having stopped the advance in Moscow and Leningrad.

File:RIAN archive 129359 German prisoners-of-war in Moscow.jpg
German prisoners of war in Moscow
  Practically not at all, in spite of the insistent request of Stalin of opening the second front, the Allied Forces, consciously, allowed to be drained to Russia for debilitate her, there exist documents that show agreements to the beginning of the war in this respect. For it the landing in Sicily took place on July 10, 1943, when the Soviet ones had won in Stalingrad on February 2, date of capitulation of the Germans and in the battle of Kursk in the middle of July. Such an awaited landing of Normandy was not realized until June 6, 1944, when the first Soviet soldiers were already crossing the river Vistula and entering Poland on July 16 of the same year and June 22 they initiated the operation Bragation that destroyed the center German group of the army, between 25 and 28 divisions, 350.000 men in whole [7], his biggest defeat in the war.

  That is to say the war was already decisively gained of the Russian side when the Allied Forces began his western offensive. Let's not forget that the percentage of the German army who was fighting against the Russians was 80 % and only 20 % was fighting against the western Allied Forces in these moments. Yes it is of emphasizing the help in warlike material from the United States that, especially in mobile material, light vehicles and trucks, allowed to accelerate the Russian offensive.

  On July 17 , 57.000 German war prisoners were walked in victory by Moscow with his personal details at the head and, another sample of the Russian magnanimity, be booed nor struck, but they received in silence, even some women threw theirs meal to these killers who had massacred his people, from babies to elders.

  The struggle continued fierously until the end of the war, with bloody battles in the capture of Budapest and Berlin, between other obtained victories, as it had being a custom, with Russian blood, It is worth mentioning that has spoken to himself much of the fanaticism about the Japanese on having been defeated committing suicide in mass before giving up, and little of the German fanaticism that also produced the most numerous suicides even of entire families between them that of the substitute of Hitler, Goebbles, this must lead us to reflecting on a race which mothers in his fanaticism kill their own children.

  The Germans knowing of the barbarisms committed by them in the west, they were running, literally, to be delivered in hands of the Anglo-Saxons who found much minor resistance than the Russians, favored by the tactics continued by the Americans that was consisting of the fact that to the minor resistance, for example a simple shot from a village, were calling to the aviation so that it was devastating the village. As it they had very few falls. These tactics are very similar to the one that the NATO continues in Afghanistan at present.

  Only the battle of Berlin, which ended on May 3, 1945, cost to the Russians more than 300.000 men, dead persons, injured men or missing persons [8].

In memoriam

   It is habitual if one speaks with German to listen that "they did not know anything" about the treatment to the Jews or to the working population or to the war prisoners. Let's quote simply to Paul Johnson "modern Times" who says:
"Million Germans knew that something horrible was done by the Jews. Simply at the SS 900.000 persons were employed. Countless Germans heard and saw the trains without end circulating across the night, and they knew his meaning, as a written down comment remembers - these damned Jews do not even leave him after one sleeps in the night -".

"The German people knew of the genocide and it was agreeing with him. Only in the SS there were 900.000 of them and other 1.200.000 in the railroads... thousands of clocks of man and woman, ballpoints stolen of the victims were distributed between the armed forces... the recipients they knew from which these goods were coming. The Germans did very little to protest about what happened or to help the Jews to escape..." [9]

   The anti-Semitism was, and it continues, much established in Germany and Austria already from centuries earlier, a sample, in Austria before the beginning of the war, when the Jews were already taking a yellow star that was marking them as such, a Jew with a stick paw slipped on the ice and spent three hours fallen down since no Austrian wanted to help a Jew.

   Without forgetting the million slaves used in the German industry or in the particular farms of the whole Germany in agricultural works. The Soviet ones in his advance towards Germany were finding continuously trains full of children and kidnapped young people of Russia, the slave who was getting weak simply was eliminated. In these crimes the whole German industry was involved as I.G.Farben, Krupp, Rheinmetall, etc., and the German society. Werner Von Braun the founder of the North American aerospace industry in addition to belonging to the divided Nazi, slave used labor in his bases throwings of rockets V-1 and V-2, where many of them died. Of course neither Von Braun, nor most of the persons in charge of the German industry were condemned, only one negligible minority they were condemned to sorrow reducidísimas like Karl Krauch the man who chose Auschwitz for a factory of his company (I.G Farben) who was condemned to six years of jail and others to sorrow from 18 months until eight years, you suffer quickly exchanged or reduced by the West Germany, as said the district attorney of the judgments of Nuremberg Josiah DuBois "this sorrow would like a funks' thief" [10].
  Many of these monsters died placidly in West Germany or they keep on enjoying a comfortable retirement in Germany or in other destinations like Canaries islands in Spain or in South America, let's remember that from 1945 to 2009 have happened only 64 years, as what a person with twenty years in 1945 would have at present 84, for what still there live enough persons who suffered in his meats this barbarism, a child with five years in 1939 and that he lived through the cruelty of the war up to 11 years - if it survived - it has now (2009) 77 years, that is to say, the memory is still alive.

  When one knows all these facts he is infuriated by the absence of recognition of the Russian sacrifice for the rest of the world, especially on the part of the Western Europe, that of not being for the Russian blood would be under the Nazi yoke.

  The recent commemoration of 70 anniversary of the beginning of the second world war demonstrates the western disgrace again, the German invasion being compared to the Russian sacrifice and comparing the slaughter of Polish officials in Katyn (15 - 20.000 dead persons) and for political causes, with the sacrifice of million Russians, between 25 and 30 and of them nearly 20 million civil innocent persons, women and children mostly, again the propaganda acts without bearing in mind either the facts or the magnitude of the numbers.

  I hope that this summary should serve to open the curiosity of my compatriots of Hispanic language and also to the English language students of  these so recent topics and so deliberately forgotten.

[1] Rayfield, Donald. Stalin and his hangmen.

[2] Harrison E. Salisbury. The 900 days.

[3] Glantz, David M. When the titans clashed.

[4] Anthony Beevor. Stalingrad.

[5] Haigh, Christopher (1990). The Cambridge historical encyclopedia of Great Britain and Ireland‎. Cambridge University Press. p. 31.

[6] Anthony Beevor. Op. cit.

[7] Erickson, John. The road to Berlin. p.228.

[8] Ibíd., p.622.

[9] Johnson, Paul. A history of Jews.

[10] Johnson, Paul. A history of Jews.

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